Vaccination against Yellow Fever is compulsory before entering from (or having been in transit through for more than 12 hours) an area where the disease is endemic (= an area where yellow fever is found).
Vaccination against DTP (Diphtheria, Tetanus and Polio)
Vaccination against Typhoid for a stay of 2 weeks or longer
Vaccination against Hepatitis A (Infectious jaundice)
Vaccination against MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella)
Anti-mosquito measures are sufficient in this country or parts of this country.
The risk of contracting malaria and other mosquito-borne infectious diseases is reduced through the use of preventative measures to avoid getting bitten by mosquitos. The most effective products contain DEET. Malaria-carrying mosquitos are most active in the evening, night and early hours of the morning. The use of a mosquito net, even if it has not been impregnated with special insect repellent is also recommended. Long clothes which cover the arms and legs should be worn in the evening.
Vaccination against hepatitis B for stays of 3 months or longer, or as advised by the vaccination clinic.
Take advice from the vaccination clinic about a possible vaccination against tuberculosis.
High risk of rabies. Discuss preventive measures with the vaccination clinic.
Japanese Encephalitis is endemic. Discuss with the vaccination clinic whether or not vaccination is advisable.
Protection against mosquitoes during the day is important because of the risk of dengue. Discuss preventive measures with the vaccination clinic.
Information about Measles, Mumps and Rubella
Mumps, Measles and Rubella are rarely seen in the Netherlands any more. Elsewhere in the world these diseases are still common.
Yellow Fever is a serious but relatively rare tropical disease caused by infection with the yellow fever virus. The virus enters the bloodstream through mosquito bites and can then spread throughout the body. Vaccination is the only effective protection against Yellow Fever. It is given in the form of an injection which gives protection for at least 10 years. The vaccination is effective 10 days after the injection is given.
Information about DTP (Diphtheria, Tetanus and Polio). Persons born after 1950 have almost all received vaccinations as a child. In general a booster-injection is sufficient. Older persons who have not been vaccinated, or where this is not known, should have the full series of three injections.
Typhoid is a serious infectious disease that is transmitted through food. It is accompanied by high fever and without treatment the disease can be fatal. Although the vaccination does not offer 100% protection the disease is generally less severe after vaccination.
Information about Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A is a highly contagious disease which occurs as a childhood disease in tropical countries. Dutch nationals who were born after the war will probably not have experienced the disease. The Hepatitis A virus is transferred through food and is often found in seafood and raw vegetables. Adults can become very ill and take a long time to recover. Vaccination offers very good protection.
Hepatitis B is one of the most serious infectious diseases in the world. It is caused by the Hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis B is transmitted through blood and sexual relations. Hepatitis B is very contagious. A vaccine can be given in a series of three injections. The blood can then be tested to show the level of anitbodies. If this is sufficient then protection is lifelong.
Information about Malaria
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by parasites. There are four types of Malaria, of which only tropical malaria is potentially fatal. To prevent contracting the disease you should protect yourself against mosquito bites and in certain areas anit-malaria drugs are recommended.
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium. Infection is spread by coughing. Prevention is better than cure: If you are planning to spend 6 months or longer in a country where tuberculosis is common then the BCG vaccine is recommended, provided you have not previously had the disease or the vaccination. Vaccination does not reduce the chance of contracting TB but if does offer protection against the more serious symptoms of the disease and improves the chances of recovery.
Information about Rabies
Rabies is a viral infection which is always fatal if symptoms are present. The virus is transmitted through infected mammals' salvia (a dog, cat, monkey or other small mammal; bats can also transmit the disease). Humans can be infected if bitten, scratched or licked by an infected animal. The virus penetrates the body through small wounds in the skin or through mucous membranes in the eyes or mouth. The first visible symptoms can appear a few weeks or even several months after infection. If bitten by an animal suspected of having Rabies, you should immediately (and in any case within 1 week) receive treatment with an immunoglobulin. In addition you should be vaccinated. If you are taking a trip where the risk of being bitten is relatively high, for example if you are going trekking or on a cycling-trip, vaccination against rabies is recommended. If you are then bitten you will not need immunoglobulin, which may in any case be difficult to get hold of in developing countries and treatment with additional vaccinations will be sufficient. Discuss with the vaccination clinic whether a vaccination against Rabies is advisable in your individual case.
Japanese encephalitis is a viral infection that is transmitted by mosquitoes. In most cases the patient will have no symptoms or they may appear to have a kind of flu with fever, muscle aches and a headache. In severe cases an inflammation of the membranes of the brain can occur. Those at greatest risk are persons staying in the countryside for a period of time during the peak season for the disease. Discuss with the vaccination clinic whether or not a vaccination is advisable in your individual case.
Information about Dengue
Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease accompanied by high fever, headache and muscle aches. A rash also often occurs. There is no treatment for Dengue and in general patients recover well with time. The mosquito that transmits dengue is active during the day. Taking appropriate measures to prevent mosquito bites is an effective way to protect against the disease.